What is Biopower? Biomass is fuel that is produced form organic materials, a renewable and sustainable source of energy to create electricity or other forms of power. Meaning Biopower or Biomass Power is the use of biomass to generate electricity.
The majority of the biopower plants in the world use direct burning. The burn bioenergy feed stocks directly to produce steam. This steam is usually captured by a turbine, and a generator converts them into electricity. In some industries, the steam from the power plant is also utilized for manufacturing processes or to heat buildings. These are known as consolidated heat and power facilities. For example, wood waste is frequently used to produce both electricity and steam at paper mills. Biomass can also serve as substitute for a segment of coal in an existing power plant heater in a process called co-firing (combusting two different types of material at the same time).
BACTERIAL DECOMPOSITION (ANAERO BIC DIGESTION)
Bacterial Decomposition for Biofuel. Natural waste material, such as animal fertilizer, or human sewage, is collected in oxygen-free tanks called digesters. Here, the material is decomposed by anaerobic microbes that produce methane and other byproducts to form a renewable natural gas, which then be able to be purified and used to generate electricity.
In landfills, wells can be drilled to discharge the methane form decaying organic matter. Then pipes form each well convey the gas to a central point where it is filtered and cleaned before burning.
Methane can be utilized as an energy source in many ways. Most facilities burn it in a boiler to produce steam for electricity generation or for mechanical procedures. Two new discoveries that include the use of microturbines and fuel cells. Microturbines have yields of 25 to 500 kilowatts. About the measure of a refrigerator, they can be utilized where there are space limitations for power production. Methane can also be utilized as the “fuel” in a fuel cell. Fuel cells work much like batteries but never need recharging, delivering power as long as there’s fuel.
CONVERSION TO A GAS OR LIQUID FUEL
Biomass can be converted to a gaseous or liquid fuel through gasification and pyrolysis. Gasification is a produce that exposes solid biomass material to high temperature with almost no oxygen present, to produce synthesis gas (or syngas) – a mixture that consists mostly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The gas would then be able to be burned in a conventional boiler to produce electricity. It can also be utilized to replace natural gas in a combined-cycle gas turbine.
Pyrolysis happens when biomass is heated at a lower temperature range but in the complete absence of oxygen. The biomass then turns into a fluid called crude bio-oil. This bio-oil which can be burned like petroleum or diesel in furncaes, turbines, and engines to generate electricity. A biopower system that utilizes pyrolysis oil is being commercialized worldwide.